I recently watched one of my favorite musical turned movies, Les Miserables, with my other favorite being The Phantom of the Opera. Upon watching Les Miserables, I noticed there were two scenes very similar to that of Hamlet, which I happen to be reading as of this moment. These two works both have the motifs of revenge and serious contemplation. Hamlet is bent on revenge for his father’s death through killing Claudius, while the revenge in Les Miserables comes from how Javert is obsessed with catching Jean Valjean. However, the scenes of serious contemplation really intrigue me.
There are two scenes in the beginning of the movie that are central to setting up how the audience views Jean Valjean. The first one is immediately after the police come to the church where Jean Valjean is staying and are about to arrest him for stealing but the priest clears his name. Realizing how the priest saved him from going back to jail, he has a soliloquy where he contemplates what he is doing with his life and his character. Now, it isn’t of the same subject matter of whether he should commit suicide or not, but this scene is important as it leads to the all important question of the movie in the next song. The next more comparable scene is the scene where Jean Valjean has heard how an innocent man will be tried for being mistaken to be him, and he must make a decision: take action or don’t. If he takes action he risks his life, but if he doesn’t he has the guilt of a man’s life over him. He asks the question that will continue to echo through the play/movie: Who am I?
Toward’s the end of the movie, the scene I am about to discuss takes place, and note if you haven’t seen the movie/play I am warning you this is a spoiler. Now, if you recall the end of the movie has the scene where Javert has failed to catch Jean Valjean ater he just watches him walk away from the sewer exit. The next scene the audience finds Javert on top of a bridge walking on the edge. He then continues to sing the song titled “Javert’s Suicide” where he decides what to do with his life after failing at his really own purpose for living, justice. He believes he has failed and contemplates whether to live or die. This is very similar to Hamlet in the “To be or not to be..” soliloquy as he too contemplates suicide. The only difference between the two is that Javert takes his own life and Hamlet instead takes a different action, deciding to carry out revenge.
Over this three day weekend, I stumbled upon one of my favorite movies, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. The Academy Award winner for Best Picture stars younger Jack Nicholson, Danny Devito, and Christopher Lloyd. This movie is about a criminal, McMurphy, who gets sentenced to a mental ward in order to escape prison. He wants to serve his sentence in the hospital environment and pretends to be mentally ill in order to be placed in the ward. He starts to take advantage and be the leader of his fellow patients inside while he butts heads with the head nurse, Nurse Ratched. The tension between Ratchet and McMurphy grows as the plot thickens and in the end McMurphy falls. On the surface it may not relate to Shakespeare, but upon further review it bares resemblance thematically to Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
The main connection between Hamlet and One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest lies in the two lead characters, Hamlet and McMurphy respectively, and the series of events that surround them. In the beginning, McMurphy is disgruntled with his current situation about being sentenced by is not terribly upset, and upon meeting Nurse Ratchet he conforms to her policies and ways. He establishes himself as the leader of his fellow patients when he realizes they all fear the authority of Nurse Ratched instead of thinking about how to one day live in the real world outside of the ward. Upon doing so, he upsets Nurse Ratched when he gambles with the other patients and wins all of their rationed cigarettes. In addition, he asks if she could change the work schedule so that he and his friends in the ward could watch the World Series. In both instances, she calls him out and humiliates him in front of his peers. On the other hand, Hamlet starts off as upset from the death of his father and the fact his mother so readily married his uncle and giving up the throne to him. Claudius, the uncle, tries to suppress Hamlet and keep an eye on him in case he tries to pull off any schemes or causes any trouble. This is very similar to how Nurse Ratched heavily drugs all of the patients with a concoction of daily doses that are required daily and she also intimidates everyone by watching them through the window of her warden office (a symbol of her tyranny and power). Upon seeing the ghost of his father, Hamlet seeks vengeance of Claudius for the murder of his father. In One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, after a moment of realization, McMurphy seeks revenge on Ratched for how she humiliated him and how she oppresses everyone in the institution.
There are more similarities between these two characters, including their relationship with characters and how they use their wit. Both Hamlet and McMurphy attempt to overthrow and take revenge on the tyrants in their worlds, Claudius and Ratched. Both of these tyrants try to manipulate those below them and make it appear as though all is well in their state. Claudius does this by making Hamlet pretend as though he is happy to make it appear he is a strong leader like King Hamlet. Ratched does this by drugging the patients heavily, watching them from her office window, keeping McMurphy in check, and keeping everyone on a schedule. Hamlet and McMurphy react in similar ways, by keeping their plans low-key and pretending to conform to their tyrants’ ways. Hamlet pretends to be loyal and obedient to Claudius while McMurphy pretends to be truly mentally unstable as though he actually belongs in their (because he is actually not mentally unstable, he just said he was to get out of prison). They both use their wit with other characters. For example, McMurphy escapes the ward to take everyone out on an unauthorized fishing trip and he also tricks everyone to gamble more than they should in their games (poor Martini). On the other hand, Hamlet is very quick in making sure the guards actually saw the ghost of King Hamlet and he also wants to make sure Claudius killed his father.
Hamlet and McMurphy are both anti-heroes asthey are the protagonists of their stories but don’t have all of the ideal qualities of the idealized hero. Being tragedies, the anti-hero ultimately meets their downfall and these two tragedies are no exception. Upon his death in trying to restore the “rotten state of Denmark”, Hamlet dies and he is given a fitting military style burial for all of the recognized good he has done as a noble, respected figure. Similarly after receiving a lobotomy by the hands of Nurse Ratched, the Chief smothers McMurphy with a pillow as he wants his friend to be remembered for who he was and not in the mindless state he was bound to live due to the operation. Thus, the Chief kills his friend and allows him to die with honor as he remembered who he was and what he stood for. This prompted the Chief to symbolically use the sink, that McMurphy tried to throw at the window, to escape and run away. It is amazing how a movie so different in the setting and time can parallel the literature of the past.
At the moment, I am enjoying the wonders of Shakespeare’s classic Othello and have heard Iago, the villain, shows Shakespeare’s brilliance. In the opening scene, Iago says how in this world there are two kinds of people: those who work hard for their bosses to just please them and those who pretend to be dedicated to pleasing their masters but really look out for their own well-being to advance themselves. Iago claims those that only work for their masters have no soul and should be punished for being naive. Thus, he says he is of the latter and those are respectable men. Upon reading this dialogue, I immediately recalled the story of the young, ambitious Cuban immigrant in the movie Scarface, Tony Montana.
For those of you who have not seen Scarface, it details the story of Tony Montana, a Cuban immigrant who travels to Miami to start a new life. He starts off as a humble dishwasher but is suddenly introduced to the underground crime wave of Miami one night. Immediately after being given orders for his first job, Tony refers to the same idea Iago does and he makes it clear that he is on the same side as Iago. In this criminal empire, Tony “Started From the Bottom” and after completing all of his task the boss was thoroughly impressed by Tony’s dedication. The boss invites Tony to meet him and he is introduced to the wealth of power his boss possesses and what his world seems to offer. Over time, the boss seems to take Tony under his wing and Tony quickly overtakes his boss’ former right hand man, the guy who first gave Tony his orders. Tony then precedes to work for the boss but the entire time he is only looking after himself. Through this opportunity, Tony is learning the ropes of running an empire and is figuring out a way how to make it his. He is motivated by wanting to crush all of those who made him feel inferior and put him down. One day he looks up into the Miami skyline and sees a blimp with the motto: The World is Yours. He then spends the rest of the film struggling with the concept of power while juggling his priorities.
The concepts of betrayal, manipulation, jealousy, power, and authority strike powerfully in both Othello and Scarface. Throughout the entire movie, Tony looks out for himself, even while pretending to please his superiors, and is convinced nothing can stop him in his pursuit. He manipulates those around him while seeming innocent and warps his situation to benefit his agenda. Eventually, Tony betrays his boss and takes over the empire and makes it his. In Othello, Iago is the right hand man of the general Othello and he seeks to betray his master by seeking retribution. Iago believes Othello slept with his wife, so Iago creates a scheme to get Othello’s wife, Desdemona, to sleep with his friend Roderigo. Throughout the movie, Tony tries to undermine and question his boss’reputation and leadership by making him look bad. In both stories, Iago and Tony do not think highly of authority as they both indirectly and directly question their authorities. Without giving away the latter half of Scarface, a majority of the film is focused on Tony struggling to balance his obsession with power with the rest of his life. He has to balance his huge empire with family, friends, and other business. Early on, Tony is much more like-able as the audience admires his dedication and ambition to make his life something more than just an immigrant. In addition, both Tony and Iago care about their reputation as people and care about more as time goes on. However, over time darkness takes over and he gets corrupted by the opportunity in front of him. Tony Montana is a perfect example of the anti-hero. This then arises the question, will Iago be corrupted by what he is trying to do and will he fall? It will be interesting to see how Othello will play out.